Unemployment refers to a situation where people are capable and willing to work at the going wage rates but cannot secure jobs. The numbers of people with the capacity and willing to work but not secure jobs were increasing recently in Mogadishu. Although there is no exact statistics, the rate of unemployed graduates is very high. The unemployment of the fresh graduates is a difficult problem that needs to be solved.
There are many jointed reasons that caused the unemployment problems of the fresh graduates in Mogadishu.
The number of universities in Mogadishu was increasing recently. Many universities were established and operated in Mogadishu in the last decade, and many students got chance to have their first degree from these universities. This increase of universities brought an increase of the number of degree holders seeking to secure jobs in the market. Thousands of students graduate from the universities in Mogadishu every year. They join to the labor market and increase the number of unemployed in Mogadishu.
The government did not create programs that employ the fresh graduates seeking jobs in Mogadishu. Furthermore, the candidates of the government jobs are selected by either family connections or a group privilege.
The inappropriate educational development of the graduates also get involved their unemployment. The education system is mostly adopted from developed world and that incline the graduates towards white collar jobs and urban settling which does not match the realities in the labor market. In addition, the education system does not adequately equip the students with the knowledge and skills required in the labor market such as languages and computer skills. This mis-match between the university leavers’ skills and job requirements creates unemployment.
The graduates that can innovate and create employment opportunities to themselves and others are very rare. Lack of entrepreneurial skills of the graduates made all graduates seek jobs in the market.
The international NGOs recruitment policy does not give chance to fresh graduates. These agencies recruit candidates with many experiences. This condition of experience rejected the fresh graduates to work with the international NGOs.
Most of the students in south and central Somalia go to Mogadishu when they finish the secondary school. Different students come from different regions. They study, seek jobs, and reside in Mogadishu; this made the chances of the graduates very limited to secure jobs since the jobs are limit and the job seekers are more than the needed candidates. In addition, master degree holders were increasing recently in Mogadishu. All institutions including universities, government agencies, international NGOs, and most of the private sector actors prefer to employ the master holders. Without considering the knowledge and capacity of the first degree holders, many institutions do not give a chance to the well talented first degree holders. All these factors joined together had increased the number of unemployed graduates in Mogadishu.
In order to solve this problem, I am suggesting several options that may decrease the unemployment problem of the fresh graduates in Mogadishu:-
First, the universities should try ways to seek jobs to their graduates. They have to make a connection between its graduates and the institutions that need their knowledge and skills. For example the university may connect the hospitals and the Medicine or Nursing graduates.
Second, the government should create employment opportunities to the regions and give incentive to investors to locate industries in the regions. When more jobs are created in the regions, migration to Mogadishu is reduced and unemployment rate of Benadir region is also reduced.
Third, the graduates should try creating opportunities to them. They have to establish valuable business ideas relate to their field of study that may participate developing their professional study as well us develop the community. They should think that their future and the future of the country are in their hands. They have to create opportunities to themselves by starting new businesses, volunteering services, and also seek internships.
Last, the government should apply meritocracy principle for its recruitment of the new candidates. Meritocracy is the principle wherein appointments are made and responsibilities are given based on demonstrated talents and ability (merit usually education, and acquired skills) rather than family connections (nepotism), class privilege, friends or other historical determinants of social position.